Pedagogies to Consider

Pedagogies are closely related to course models; however, when designing particular resources, activities, assignments, and assessments, consideration of various pedagogical strategies and instructional design approaches may provide important awareness-raising and guidance.

Big Picture: Faculty as Designers of Learning Environments

“Learning itself cannot be designed. It can only be designed for through the design of learning environments … If technologies were simply for providing and structuring information, they wouldn’t be all that learner centered. Information in the form of facts and ideas isn’t what we seek as learners; we look for meaning and understanding by making connections. … This is why we bother with technologies: they have the potential to expand choices about how we teach and learn.”
- Haughey, 2003

The Design of Learning Environments

  • Learner-centered environments: Designers attend to learners’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs
  • Knowledge-centered environments: Designers help students to go beyond rote learning to enduring understandings transferable to novel situations
  • Assessment-centered environments: Designers provide opportunities for feedback and revision congruent with explicit learning outcomes
  • Community-centered environments: Designers establish norms for people learning from one another and continually attempting to improve
From How People Learn

Instructional Design

Worksheets from SDSU for design of course activities and assessment

Revised Bloom.doc - provides a grid with levels of Bloom's taxonomy (as revised by Krathwohl and Anderson) along one dimension, and different types of knowledge along the other. Learning outcomes, activities, and assessments can be considered as to where they "fit" on the chart, helping faculty to structure their courses appropriately given their expectations of student learning, both in terms of the spectrum of activities and in terms of alignment of activities, content, and assessment.

ubdtemplate.doc - provides a curriculum planning document based on Wiggins and McTighe's Understanding by Design, which emphasizes "beginning with the end in mind."
  • Stage 1 – Identify desired results (i.e. student learning outcomes).
  • Stage 2 – Determine acceptable evidence (i.e. the assessment measures you will use).
  • Stage 3 – Plan learning experiences and instruction (that will enable students to succeed on the assessment measures).
In course redesign, stage 1 is critical. Clarifying content priorities means distinguishing between content worth being familiar with, important to know and do, and big ideas and core tasks. At the heart of an effective course you will find 3-5 clearly identified big ideas/core tasks.

Instructional Design Tips for Online Learning
This CSU Chico document contains an exhaustive list of instructional design tips for online courses that map neatly onto to the CSU Chico Rubric for Online Instruction listed on the Course Models page of this wiki.

Universal Design for Learning
SFSU's "UDL Online Training Module is a self-directed learning resource and you can follow along at your own pace. This online course has been divided into three modules and each module is presented in multiple formats (PowerPoint with voice over, audio only, and text only). You can choose the format that suits you best."


E-Learning and Paper Testing: Why the Gap?
This Educause Quarterly article highlights issues related to the assessment of student learning in online courses. The author muses about reasons why assessment in online courses has failed to keep up with technological advances. In short, "should technologically literate students who live and learn in a multimedia environment at home, in the workplace, and at the university continue to have their learning assessed and measured through traditional pencil-and-paper-based methods?"

Authentic Assessment Toolbox
How-to website on creating authentic tasks, high-quality tests with well-constructed items, assessment rubrics and standards for measuring and improving student learning.

Authentic Task Design
Includes a framework of 10 elements suggested for the design of authentic tasks in web-based learning environments, as well as a handful of example websites and links to related papers and articles.

Course Redesign Assessment
This site developed at SDSU contains a number of ideas and resources related to formative assessment of student learning.

Course Administration

The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction
The authors of this article explain how clear and consistent policies regarding e-mail, discussion boards, and intellectual property can benefit students in online courses.

Shared Educational/Instructional Resources

"Putting Educational Innovations Into Practice. Find peer reviewed online teaching and learning materials. Share advice and expertise about education with expert colleagues. Be recognized for your contributions to quality education."

Open Educational Resources Commons
"Free-to-Use teaching and learning content from around the world. Organize K-12 lessons, college courses, and more for your classroom."

"Curriki is more than your average website; we're a community of educators, learners and committed education experts who are working together to create quality materials that will benefit teachers and students around the world. Curriki is an online environment created to support the development and free distribution of world-class educational materials to anyone who needs them. Our name is a play on the combination of 'curriculum' and 'wiki' which is the technology we're using to make education universally accessible."

Online Activity Index
"This index represents a compilation of ... activities to help instructors plan their online and hybrid courses. A complete description of each activity is given, along with examples when possible. Common educational uses of each activity are discussed as well as common educational objectives. Furthermore, teaching strategies for the given activity are provided."